Thursday, February 20, 2020
Development(history) of Transportation system in US(or California) - Essay Example This essay stresses that transportation system development in the U.S. is concentrated on sustainability, economic contribution, environment, governmental efficiency and competitiveness of the nation. Benfield is of the view that efficiency is the only factor that one needs to develop a transportation system. Economic cost for transporting goods and passengers, fuel consumption implications, pollution, and urban sprawl and congestion are some of the factors that motivate the government to invest profoundly in developing the national transportation system. This paper makes a conclusion that the U.S. transportation system has undergone dramatic change processes spanning from the 18th to the 21st century. Its developmental journey started from waterways to mass transit systems of today. The emergence of such a complex transport system had come about through political, economic and social endeavors. From Red Indians during the 18th century to the Gold Rush consumers to the modern transit travelers, these consumers have paved the way for the U.S. transportation system. However, these developmental factors would not have achieved its objectives had it not been for the contribution of business community. Although, they had been motivated by their own interests, nevertheless they were the first "planners" who had literally paved the way for linking settlements, towns and metropolis. Regardless of the players and factors, the U.S. transportation system today is clearly one which deserves admiration.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Empowering Employees on Team Processes - Research Paper Example However, the range of resolutions the employees can take part in is dependent on the organizational policies. Some of the areas employees may have a voice in include, the working conditions, vocational hours, company policies, the manner in which jobs are to be undertaken, peer reviews as well as how supervisors are appraised. To achieve employee empowerment, the management has to undertake capacity building and the development of the human resources under their control or payroll. In view of this, employees and teams ought to possess the self-belief and capacity to perform assignments and ought to have the opportunities to grow and shine. Performance and employees self-assurance is boosted when they gain additional skills in organizational as well as management issues, and when they obtain fresh skills and expertise. EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ empowerment is not a one-day undertaking and it is not straightforward.Ã Employee empowerment in an organization setting Human resource professiona ls believes that businesses can increase their productivity by empowering their employees. Other human resource scholars put forward that the majority of organizations take part in employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ empowerment because of its potential to augment organizational innovations and value (Boudrias, Brunet, Morin, Savoie, Plunier, & Cacciatore, 2010). In an organizational setup employee involvement, entails the supervisors supporting immediate workforces in taking part in decisions concerning their vocational responsibilities, and offering them power over their working environment. This strategy is believed to increase workforce enthusiasm and in due course makes them increase their output. However, some researchers have downplayed this hypothesis by arguing that employees empowerment is influenced by many factors other than giving employees control over their work environment. Boudrias, Brunet, Morin, Savoie, Plunier, and Cacciatore, (2010) ascertain that the empowerment of the employee does not take place in an organizational void. This is because the supervisors may endeavor to boost the empowerment of their workforces through awarding the workforces decision-making tasks and offering them the chance to take part, but other organizational system aspects such as procedures governing decision-making, capacity building as well as the reward process may be contradicting to the power given to the employee. Hence, the probability of an empowerment effort by the supervisor to enhance the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ empowerment could be conditional to the existence of organizational sustaining features. Therefore, empirical research suggests that effectual empowerment of employees necessitates the creation of an organizational environment distinguished by acknowledgment, support, autonomy support and justice (Boudrias, Brunet, Morin, Savoie, Plunier, & Cacciatore, 2010).Ã Ã